From Citizenship to Equality

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela (Photo credit: Festival Karsh Ottawa)


Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X meet bef...

Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X meet before a press conference. Both men had come to hear the Senate debate on the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This was the only time the two men ever met; their meeting lasted only one minute. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


Points for Discussion, April 25. 2013


Cultural Achievements and Connections


Manning argues that spectacular achievements in culture and sports from the 1910s to the 1950s helped open the way to the political gains in the 1960s and 1970s.


The story of Carolina María de Jesus reveals how the achievements (i.e., citizenship, education) were not enough.


We all have seen the feats of people like Jesse Owens and Louis Armstrong, but perhaps Franco (Luambo) best represents the dynamic exchanges within the African Diaspora—in this case in particular it was across the Atlantic. He helped develop and promote the “African rumba,” but based his style on the Cuban son.


Remarkable set of political theorists and practitioners


1- Nelson Mandela (South Africa) 1953 “No Easy Walk to Freedom” (script 2)


There is no easy walk to freedom anywhere and many of us will have to pass through the valley of the shadow of death again and again before we reach the mountain tops of our desires.


2- Martin Luther King Jr. (USA) “I have a Dream” and his rendering of “We Shall Overcome” 


Look at the similarities with Mandela’s speech.


A back story of (WikiBayard Rustin


story of “We Shall Overcome


3- Frantz Fanon (Martinique)


4- Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana)


Campaigns organized by Black Women


5- Rosa Park -Alabama Bus Boycott 1955


Johannesburg women in the Alexandra Bus Boycott– 1957


Against “Identity Pass” in Pretoria 1957


Make a list of achievements- 1950-1970


Discussion on Equality (page 289)




How to measure it?


How to gain social equality and retain distinctiveness?


The Jews’ plight setting the stage for the term “racism” used in the fight for equality.


The term negro to Black.


Paolo Freire published Pedagogy of the Oppressed as part of the efforts for better education.


Gustavo Gutierrez: Theology of Liberation and the Vatican II Council (1962-1967)


Crises? What are the New Inequalities? 






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